Motivaation “rakentaminen”, X vai Y ?

Luen tenttiin kirjaa opetuksesta ja oppimisesta, ja siinä tuli vastaan ajatus motivaatiosta, joka mielestäni pätee kursseihin, työyhteisöihin, luokkahuoneisiin tai mihin tahansa, jossa ihmisten tekemisellä ja oppimisella on merkitystä.

Lähtökohtana on asenne ihmisiin:

X -teoria: ihmisiä pitää kontrolloida mahdollisimman tarkasti, koska heihin ei voi luottaa. He huijaavat aina kun tulee tilaisuus, siispä on tärkeää että hallinta on tiukkaa.

Y -teoria: ihmisiin luotetaan, he kyllä tekevät parhaansa jos heillä on siihen edellytykset.

Kirjan mukaan tämä asenne vaikuttaa todella paljon siihen miten ihmisryhmä käyttäytyy. X -teorian organisaatiossa vallitsee kyyninen kyttäämisen ilmapiiri, kukaan ei tee enempää kuin pakotetaan. Ihmiset kyllä toimivat ulkoisesti samankaltaisesti. Y -teorian organisaatiossa ihmiset valitsevat itse tiensä kohti päämääriä mutta ovat enemmän sisäisesti motivoituneita. Toimintatavat saattavat vaihdella.

Kumpaa sinä haluat edistää?

Lue lisää:

Motivaatiosta

Getting students involved in learning: Motivation

Motivation has two meanings: it refers to initiating learning, and to maintain- ing engagement during learning. To initiate learning, students need to see the cost-benefits: that engaging in learning has evident value and that engagement is likely to realize that value. Value accrues to a task for a variety of reasons: extrinsic, where the consequences either bring something we want, or avoid something we don’t want; social, where the value comes from what other important people think; achievement, where the value is ego enhancement; intrinsic, where we don’t even think to ask where the value comes from: it’s the journey, not the destination. Teachers can make use of these values to bring about positive results. Extrinsic reinforcement in the form of rewards and punishments needs to be used carefully, punishment can be quite counterproductive. Likewise, competition may turn on some of the Susans but none of the Roberts. Teachers can act as enthusiastic role models – and if they want to motivate their students intrinsically, they should teach constructively.

X ja Y

The teaching/learning climate

The quality of the relationship set up between teacher and students, or within an institution, is referred to as its ‘climate’, the way the students feel about it. A Theory X climate is based on the assumption that students cannot be trusted, a Theory Y climate on the assumption that they can. If Level 1 and Level 3 theories of teaching describe two cognitive views of teaching, Theory X and Theory Y climates are their affective counterparts. The tight formal structures of a Theory X climate, with sanctions for non-compliance, result in anxiety and cynicism; both lead to surface learning. A Theory Y climate allows students freedom to make their own learning-related choices, which, as we shall see, is important if students are to become independent lifelong learners.

Lähde:
Biggs, J., & Tan, C. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university. Open University Press.

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